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pastoral livelihoods in tanzania
Керамогранит Venis Starwood Tanzania Wine 25х150 см pastoral livelihoods in tanzania

Керамогранит Venis S...

Керамогранит Venis Starwood Tanzania Wine 25х150 см визуально восприни...

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Керамогранит Venis Starwood Eden Tanzania Wine 60,2х60,2 см pastoral livelihoods in tanzania

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Керамогранит Venis Starwood Eden Tanzania Wine 60,2х60,2 см V-образная...

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Керамогранит Venis Starwood Tanzania Almond 25х150 см pastoral livelihoods in tanzania

Керамогранит Venis S...

Керамогранит Venis Starwood Tanzania Almond 25х150 см визуально воспри...

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Керамическая плитка Venis Sydney Maia Tanzania Nut настенная 33,3х100 см pastoral livelihoods in tanzania

Керамическая плитка...

Керамическая плитка Venis Sydney Maia Tanzania Nut настенная 33,3х100...

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North Sea. A Visual Anthology pastoral livelihoods in tanzania

North Sea. A Visual...

The nations bordering the North Sea have always been engaged in a dial...

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Adrian Smith Domesticating Neo-Liberalism. Spaces of Economic Practice and Social Reproduction in Post-Socialist Cities pastoral livelihoods in tanzania

Adrian Smith Domesti...

Based on in-depth research in Poland and Slovakia, Domesticating Neo-L...

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The World's Heritage: A Complete Guide to the Most extraordinary places pastoral livelihoods in tanzania

The World's Heritage...

A unique guide to every UNESCO World Heritage site. The global list ha...

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Murphy James T. Africa's Information Revolution. Technical Regimes and Production Networks in South Africa and Tanzania pastoral livelihoods in tanzania

Murphy James T. Afri...

Africa’s Information Revolution was recently announced as the 2016 pri...

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Asmerom Kidane The demand for cigarette in Tanzania: A temporal approach pastoral livelihoods in tanzania

Asmerom Kidane The d...

The study presented here attempts to estimate the effect of increased...

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Poliza Michael The Essential Africa pastoral livelihoods in tanzania

Poliza Michael The E...

He made his fortune in IT and then conducted a three-year voyage aroun...

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Piquero Irantzu, Bahamon Alejandro African Interior Design pastoral livelihoods in tanzania

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African Interior Design. From Kenya to Tanzania, Zimbabwe to Namibia,...

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Bedding Set полутораспальный SANTALINO, PASTORAL, gray/Lavender pastoral livelihoods in tanzania

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Bedding Set полутораспальный SANTALINO, PASTORAL, gray/Lavender

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Bedding Set полутораспальный SANTALINO, PASTORAL, Gray pastoral livelihoods in tanzania

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Bedding Set полутораспальный SANTALINO, PASTORAL, Gray

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Bedding Set double-euro SANTALINO, PASTORAL, Gray pastoral livelihoods in tanzania

Bedding Set double-e...

Bedding Set double-euro SANTALINO, PASTORAL, Gray

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Людвиг ван Бетховен Symphonie № 6 (Pastoral) F-Dur pastoral livelihoods in tanzania

Людвиг ван Бетховен...

Людвиг ван Бетховен Symphonie № 6 (Pastoral) F-Dur

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Bedding Set family SANTALINO, PASTORAL, Gray pastoral livelihoods in tanzania

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Bedding Set family SANTALINO, PASTORAL, Gray

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Для информации:

The study presented here attempts to estimate the effect of increased price of cigarettes on the corresponding consumption in Tanzania. The study is based on household panel survey data that were conducted over three periods in 2008, 2010 and 2012. For each period price is estimated indirectly. The price increase was substantial and higher than the corresponding aggregate Consumer Price Index (CPI). An attempt is made to relate the increase in price with a possible decrease in cigarette consumption. The methods of analysis are descriptive tabular statistics and the «two-equation econometrics» approach. Over the study period, the descriptive approach showed a substantial increase in price but a modest decrease in cigarette consumption prevalence rate, intensity rate and per capita consumption. When a more robust and powerful econometric method was applied, the results showed a substantial decrease in consumption. There was a significant reduction in intensity compared to participation. Between 2008 and 2010 total price elasticity of demand decreased from -0.686 to -0.727. In 2012 the value was -1.139. The reduction in consumption was much higher among the very poor and the poor (-2.387 and -1.967 respectively). When cross classified by age group the youth (20 years or less) showed a high elasticity of -1.672. The results suggest that in a typical African country smokers (who are relatively poor) will react to substantial price increase in a predictable manner. Price elasticity of demand greater than absolute unity need not be unusual.